With a couple of exceptions, the images on this site are:

  • Images from online sources, used under Creative Commons licence and linked back to the source;
  • Photographs taken by me in museums and galleries, or while working on projects; and
  • Photos taken by other people, used with permission and attributed wherever possible (if you have additional attributions, please let me know).

I have include a few pictures from out-of-print books, duly referenced.

Books & articles

Sources are cited in each article or project, and linked back to this page for efficiency:

Alcega J de (1979) Tailor’s Pattern Book 1589 Facsimile (Pain J & Bainton C trans), Ruth Bean, Bedford UK

Ambuter C (1982) The Open Canvas Workman Publishing, NY

Amman J & Sachs H (1973) The Book of Trades (Standebuch) (Reprint of 1568 edition), Dover NY

Anderson RM (1979) Hispanic Costume 1480-1530, The Hispanic Society of America, NY

Arnold J (1985) Patterns of Fashion 3: The cut and construction of clothes for men and women c.1560-1620, McMillan, London

Arnold J (2008) Patterns of Fashion 4: The cut and construction of linen shirts, smocks, neckwear, headwear and accessories for men and women c.1560-1620, McMillan, London

Arnold J (1988) Queen Elizabeth’s Wardrobe Unlock’d, WS Maney & Son Ltd, Leeds

Ashelford J (1983) A Visual History of Costume: The Sixteenth Century Batsford, London

Ashelford J (1988) Dress in the Age of Elizabeth Batsford, London

Barich K & McNealy M (2015) Drei Schnittbücher: Three Austrian Master Tailor Books of the 16th Century, Nadel und Farden Press, USA

Boucher F A (1987) History of Costume in the West, Thames & Hudson, NY

Bridgeman H & Drury E (1978) Needlework: an illustrated history, Paddington Press, New York

Braun & Schneider (1975) Historic Costume in Pictures (Dover reprint of 1907 edition) Dover Publucations, NY

Cennini C (1993) The Craftsman’s Handbook “Il Libro dell’Arte” (Thomson DV Jr trans) Dover Publications, NY

Coatsworth E and Owen-Crocker G (2018) Clothing the Past: Surviving Garments from Early Medieval to Early Modern Europe, Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands

Cowgill J, de Neergaard M and Griffiths N (2000) Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 1 Knives and Scabbards, Museum of London, London

Crowfoot E, & Pritchard F and Staniland K (1991) Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 4 Textiles and Clothing c.1150 – c.1450, Museum of London, London

Dahl CL & Sturtewagen I (2008) The Cap of St. Birgitta, in Medieval Clothing and Textiles 4, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge UK

Digby GW (1963) Elizabethan Embroidery Faber & Faber, London

Dreher D (1981) From the Neck Up: An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking, Madhatter Press, Minneapolos, MN

Drogin M (1980) Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique, George Prior, London

Egan G (2005) Material Culture in London in an Age of Transition, MoLAS Monograph 19, Museum of London, London

Egan G (1998) Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 6 The Medieval Household Daily Living c.1150 – c.1450, Museum of London, London

Egan G & Pritchard F (1991) Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 3 Dress Accessories c.1150 – c.1450, Museum of London, London

Ellis M (2001) Embroiders and Samplers from Islamic Egypt, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

Evans, SJ (1988) Counted Thread Patterns from Nicolo Zoppino’s Universali (The Universals) 1537, Self published

Flury-Lemberg, M (1988) Textile conservation and research: a documentation of the Textile Department on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Abegg Foundation, Abegg-Stiftung, Bern

Fox-Davies A (1978) A Complete Guide to Heraldry, 2nd ed, Bonanza Books, New York

Freidländer MJ & Rosenberg J (1978) The Paintings of Lucas Cranach, The Wellfleet Press, New Jersey

Fuchs, L (2001) The New Herbal 1543, Taschen, Köln

García Serrano R (2015) La Moda Española en el Siglo de Oro, Consejería de Educación, Cultura y Deportes : Fundación de Cultura y Deporte, Toledo

Gardinier J (ed) (2005) Before the Mast: Life and Death Aboard the Mary Rose, The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth

Geddes E & McNeill M (1976) Blackwork Embroidery, Dover Publications, NY

Geisberg M (1974) The German Single Leaf Woodcut 1500-1550, Hacker Art Books Inc, New York

Goodman R (2015) How to Be a Tudor: A Dawn-to-Dusk Guide to Everyday Life, Viking Press, NY

Gostelow M (1976) Blackwork, B T Batsford Ltd, London

Goubitz O (2007) Purses in Pieces, Stitchtig Promotie Archeologie, Zvolle

Goubitz O, van Driel-Murray C & Groenman-van Waateringe W (2001) Stepping Through Time: Archaeological Footwear from Prehistoric Times until 1800, Stitchtig Promotie Archeologie, Zvolle

Grew F & de Neergaard M (1988, Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 2 Shoes and Patterns, Museum of London, London

Herald J (1981) Renaissance Dress in Italy 1400-1500 (History of Dress: 2), Bell & Hyman, London

Houkjaer U (2005) Tin-Glazed Eathenware 1300-1750: Spain – Italy – France, The Danish Museum of Art & Design, Copenhagen

Houston M G (1939) Medieval Costume in England and France 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries A&C Black, London

Johnston E (1977) Writing & Illuminating & Lettering, Pittman, London

Köhler C (1963) A History of Costume, Dover Publications, NY

Kremb J (2016), Painted tabletops of the late Middle Ages and Jheronimus Bosch’s (workshop) The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things, in Congress proceedings of the 4th International Jherinimus Bosch Conference April 14-16, 2016 Jheronimu Bosch Art Center’s-Hertogenbosch

Krody SB (2000) Flowers of Silk & Gold: Four Centuries of Ottoman Embroidery, Merrell Publishers Ltd, London

Kurth W (ed) (1963) The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer, Dover Publications, NY

Landini RO (2011) Moda a Firenze 1540-1580: Cosimo I de’ Medici’s Style, Mauro Pagliai Editore, Florence

Landini RO & Niccoli B (2005) Moda a Firenze 1540-1580: Lo Stile di Eeonora di Toledo e la Sua Influenzal, Pagliai Polistampa, Florence

Lindskog-Wallenburg G (1977) Bezeichnungen für Frauenkleidungsstücke und Kleiderschmuck im Mittelniederdeutschen: zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kostümkunde: Volume 5 of Göteborger germanistische Dissertationsreihe, University of Michigan

Lister M (1977) Costume: An Illustrated Survey from Ancient Times to the 20th Century, Barrie & Jenkins, London

Livings GA (2017) Aiglets: Medieval, Post Medieval, and Modern, Livingston Jewelers

Livings GA (2018) Some Possible Examples of Extant Aiglets Meant to be Sewn to Garments, Livingston Jewelers

Lynn E (2017) Tudor Fashion, Yale University Press, London

Ma J (2015) Statues and Cities: Honorific Portraits and Civic Identity in the Hellenistic World, Oxford University Press UK

McNealy M (2018) German Modelbücher 1524-1556, Nadel und Farden, Kennewick WA

Meiss M & Kirsch EW (1972) The Visconti Hours, George Braziller NY

Monnas L (2012) Renaissance Velvets, V&A Publishing, London

Nagy M (2014) The Modern Maker Vol.1: Men’s Doublets, Self published, CA

Neubecker O (1997) Heraldry Sources, Symbols and Meaning, Macdonald & James, Great Britain

Norris, H (1999) Medieval Costume and Fashion. Originally published 1927. Dover, NY

Nøttveit, OM (2010) The Bryggen Papers Main Series 8: Sheaths and Scabbards from Medieval Bergen, Fagbokforlager, Bergen

Oledzka O (2016) Medieval & Renaissance Interiors in Illuminated Manuscripts, British Museum, London

Rublack U & Hayward M (eds) (2015) The First Book of Fashion, Bloomsbury Academic, London

Scott M (1986) A Visual History of Costume: The Fourteenth & Fifteenth Centuries, BT Batsford, London

Scully T (2008) The Opera of Bartolemeo Scappi (1570): L’Arte Et Prudenza d’Un Maestro Cuoco, University of Toronto Press, Toronto

Sherman DR (1993) The Compete Anachronist #63: Domestic Lighting, Society for Creative Anachronism, CA

Seiler-Baldinger A (1994) Textiles: A Classification of Techniques, Crawford House Press, Australia

Šimša M (2021) Tailor’s Pattern Books in Central Europe in the 16th – 18th Centuries, National Institute of Folk Culture, Strážnice

Speaight G (1955) The History of the English Puppet Theatre, John de Gtaff, NY

Staniland K (1991) Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers, British Museum Press, London

Steel S (ed) (1999) Giotto, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, London

Stillman YK (2003) Arab Dress: A Short History from the Dawn of Islam to Modern Times (2nd Ed), Brill, Boston

Sveinsdottir D & Saemundarson B (2020) A Simplified Guide to Historical Tablet Weaving, Blurb, San Francisco

Synge L (1982) Antique Needlework, Blandford Press, Dorset

The Compact Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Ed (1987), Oxford University Press

Theophilus (1979) On Divers Arts: The Foremost Medieval Treatise on Painting, Glassmaking and Metalwork (Hawthorne JG & Smith CS trans), Dover Publications, NY

Thornton P (1991) The Italian Renaissance Interior 1400-1600, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London

Timby JR (1996) The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Ephingham II, Rutland (Oxbow Monograph 70), Oxbow UK

van Buren AH & Wieck RS (2011) Illuminating Fashion: Dress in the Art of Medieval France and the Netherlands 1325-1515, The Morgan Library, NY

Volken M & Goubitz O (2020) Covering the Blade, Stitchtig Promotie Archeologie, Zvolle

Willemsen, A & Ernst M (2012) Hundreds of… Medieval Chic in Metal: Decorative mounts on belts and purses from the Low Countries 1300-1600, SPA-Uiygevers, Zwolle

Ward, M (2016) The Livery Collar in Late Medieval England and Wales: Politics, Identity and Affinity, Boydell Press, UK

Ward-Perkins JB (1940) The London Medieval Catalogue 1940 (2nd Ed 1993), Anglia Publishing, Suffolk

Zander-Seidel J (1990) Textiler Hausrat: Kleidung und Haustextilien in Nuremberg von 1500-1650, Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich

Online sources

So many museums and galleries are digitising their collections and making them available online – such a treasure trove of resources! I have also referenced articles from personal websites.

Sources are cited in each article or project and linked back to the specific website article or item in the online collection, using permalinks where available.